Tag Archives: simulation

Five Tips for Effective Debriefing

There is no doubt that debriefing is an important part of simulation-based education efforts. Further, to do a good debriefing is not necessarily easy. Practice, self-reflection and getting training can help dramatically.  Seeking out help form experts and experienced people can be invaluable. Also, there are many resources in which to learn more about debriefing. I encourage you to take advantage of them!

Here are just five random tips in no particular order to help you increase the effectiveness of your debriefing!

5tIPS

  1. Know what the goal(s) are. Be specific.

Too many times simulation scenarios are executed and the faculty member just kind of winging it during the debriefing. It is far more effective a strategy to be keenly aware of what the learning outcomes and goals are prior to the simulation. This will allow you to focus your thoughts and ideas on helping the participants get better during the simulation which can be carried forward to your debriefing efforts. If you are attempting to have the debriefing constrained to the learning objectives for the simulation it is often easier to organize the information and get across the salient points that are needed to achieve the learning outcomes. It is particularly important to remember that you can’t teach everything with every scenario. The participant brain can only take in or process so much information in any one setting. In this case think of a sponge completely saturated with water, that can’t take any more!

  1. Have a framework or structure in mind

Having a structure to your debriefing ahead of time, or perhaps adopting a model of debriefing can help you significantly overcoming the challenging parts of debriefing. Some of the challenges occur in organizing the information. There are a number of debriefing models out there for consideration of adoption. There is no reason to believe that one is better than the other. I highly recommend that you learn several models and become comfortable with them. What you’ll find is some models work better than others in varying situations based on s number of factors such as the experience and expertise of the debriefer, the subject matter that is the focus of the simulation, as well as the level of the learners.

  1. Involve all the learners

If you are debriefing a group of students a challenging task can be involving all the learners. Often times there will be one or two learners who engage in a dialogue with the debriefer and without conscious effort and skill it is easy to continue the dialogue and allow the other members of the participating team to feel potentially marginalized. Often times this dialogue occurs with the person that was in the “hotseat”. Making a conscious effort during the debriefing to include all of the students in a meaningful way can significantly create more learner engagement. Further, if you are running multiple scenarios I believe that engaging all the learners encourages them to pay closer attention if they are in an observation role for subsequent scenarios.

  1. Pull the ideas, don’t push the facts

I like to think of the debriefing as the time when we explore the learners thought processes. If we are transmitting information or pushing facts to them the situation can become more of a lecture. In fact I see many novice debriefers break into song and start delivering a mini lectures during attempts at debriefing. It is important to remember that when you are pushing the facts to the participants it limits the amount of assessment that you can do in terms of their understanding of the material and what you need to do to create deeper learning. So, if you find yourself making many declarative statements, pullback, and start to ask some questions. Encourage critical thinking, self reflection and ensure you are helping to create linkages of what went well during the scenario and why it was good, along with allowing the participants to discover and identify what they should do differently if they were to face a similar situation in real life or another simulation to improve.

  1. Create a summary of the take home points

Novice debriefers tend to struggle with creating an adequate summary. Also, Beware. This is another time that is at risk for the debriefing turning into a mini lecture. It is helpful to have a list of the major take-home points associated with the scenario. You can contextually adapt the summary to the performance that occurred during the simulation scenario even if you have the summary points written out prior to the simulation occurring. It is important to remember that during a debriefing many areas can be covered and touched upon. Learner should be engaged to identify the major learning points that they experience in the simulation, as well as understanding how the simulation was relevant to helping them become better healthcare providers.

So, this was intended to be five random tips on how to improve the effectiveness of your debriefing strategy. I hope that you found them useful!

Now, go forth and do great debriefings extra mission point

 

Until next time,

Happy Simulating!

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Three Things True Simulationists Should NEVER Say Again

From Wiktionary: Noun. simulationist (plural simulationists) An artist involved in the simulationism art movement. One who designs or uses a simulation. One who believes in the simulation hypothesis.

Woman taping-up mans mouth

 

After attending, viewing or being involved in hundreds if not thousands of simulation lectures, webinars, workshops, briefings and conversations there are a few things that I hear that make me cringe more than others. In this post I am trying to simmer it down to the top three things that I think we should ban from the conversations and vocabularies of simulationists around the globe!

1. Simulation will never replace learning from real patients!: Of course it wont! That’s not the goal. In fact, in some aspects simulation offers some advantages over learning on real patients. And doubly in fact, real patients have some advantages too! STOP being apologetic for simulation as a methodology. When this is said it is essentially deferring to real patients as some sort of holy grail or gold standard against which to measure. CRAAAAAAAZY……   Learning on real patients is but one methodology by which to attack the complex journey of teaching, learning and assessing the competence of a person or a team of people who are engaged in healthcare.  All the methodologies associated with this goal of education have their own advantages, disadvantages, capabilities and limitations. When we agree with people and say simulation will never replace learning from real patients, or allow that notion to go unchallenged, we are doing a short service to the big picture of creating a holistic education program for learners. See previous blog post on learning on real patients. 

2. In simulation, debriefing is where all of the learning occurs!: You know you have heard this baloney before. Ahhhhhhhhhhhhh such statements are purely misinformed, not backed up by a shred of evidence, kind of contrary to COMMON SENSE, as well as demeaning to the participants as well as the staff and faculty that construct such simulations. The people who still make this statement are still stuck in a world of instructor centricity. In other words, “They are saying go experience all of that…… and then when I run the debriefing the learning will commence.” The other group of people are trying to hard sell you some training on debriefing and then make you think it is some mystical power held by only a certain few people on the planet. Kinda cra’ cra’ (slang for crazy) if you think about it.

When one says something to articulate learning cannot occur during the simulation is confirming that they are quite unthoughtful about how they construct the entire learning encounter. It also hints at the fact that they don’t take the construct of the simulation itself very seriously. The immersive experience that people are exposed to during the simulation and before the debriefing can be and should be constructed in a way that provides built in feedback, observations, as well as experiences that contribute to a feeling of success and/or recognition of the need for improvement. See previous blog post  on learning beyond debriefing

3. Recreation of reality provides the best simulation! [or some variant of this statement]: When I hear this concept even eluded to, I get tachycardic, diaphoretic, and dilated pupils. My fight or flight nervous system gets fully engaged and trust me, I don’t have any planning on running. 😊

[disclaimer on this one: I’m not talking about the type of simulation that is designed for human factors, and/or critical environmental design decisions or packaging/marketing etc. which depend upon a close replication to reality.]

This is one of the signs of a complete novice and/or misinformed person or sometimes groups of people! If you think it through it is a rather ludicrous position. Further, I believe trying to conform to this principle is one of the biggest barriers to success of many simulation endeavors. People spent inordinate amounts of time trying to put their best theatrical foot forward to try to re-create reality. Often what is actually occurring is expanding the time to set up the simulation, expanding the time to reset the simulation and dramatically increasing the time to clean up from the simulation. (All of the after mentioned time intervals increase the overall cost of the individual simulation, thereby reducing the efficiency.) While I am a huge fan of loosely modeling scenarios off of real cases in an attempt to create an environment with some sense of familiarity to the clinical analog, I frequently see people going to extremes trying to re-create details of reality.

We have hundreds and thousands of design decisions to make for even moderately complex scenarios. Every decision we make to include something to try to imitate reality has the potential to potentially cause confusion if not carefully thought out. It is easy to introduce confusion in the attempts to re-create reality since learners engage in simulation with a sense of hyper-vigilance that likely does not occur in the same fashion when they are in the real clinical learning environment. See previous blog post on cognitive third space.

If you really think about it the simulation is designed to have people perform something to allow them to learn, as well as to allow observers to form opinions about the things that the learner(s) did well, and those areas that can be improved upon. Carefully selecting how a scenario unfolds, and/or the equipment that is used to allow this performance to occur is part of the complex decision-making associated with creating simulations. The scenario should be engineered to exploit the areas, actions, situations or time frames that are desired focal points of the learning and assessment objectives.  Attention should be paid to the specifics of the learning and assessment objectives to ensure that the included cache of equipment and/or environmental accoutrements are selected to minimize the potential of confusion, create the most efficient pathway that allows the occurrence of the assessment that contributes improving the learning.

Lastly, lets put stock into the learning contract we are engaging in with our learners. We need to treat them like adult learners. (After all everybody wants to throw in the phrase adult learning principles…. Haha).

Let’s face it: A half amputated leg of a trauma patient with other signs and symptoms of hemorrhagic shock that has a blood-soaked towel under it is probably good enough for our adult learners to get the picture and we don’t actually need blood shooting out of the wound and all over the room. While the former might not be as theatrically sexy, the latter certainly contributes to the overall cost (time and resource) of the simulation. We all need to realistically ask, “what’s the value?”

While my time is up for this post, and I promised to limit my comments to only three, I cannot resist to share with you two other statements or concepts that were in the running for the top three. The first is “If you are not video recording your scenarios you cannot do adequate debriefing”, and the second one is “The simulator should never die.” (Maybe I’ll expand the rant about these and others in the future 😉).

Well… That’s a wrap. I’m off to a week of skiing with family and friends in Colorado!

Until next time,

Happy Simulating!

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Don’t Let the Theory Wonks Slow Down the Progress of Healthcare Simulation

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Those of us in the simulation community know well that when used appropriately and effectively simulation allows for amazing learning and contributes to students and providers of healthcare improving the craft. We also know there is very little published literature that conclusively demonstrates the “right way to do it”.

Yet in the scholarly literature there is still a struggle to define best practices and ways to move forward. I believe it is becoming a rate limiting step in helping people get started, grow and flourish in the development of simulation efforts.

I believe that part of the struggle is a diversity of the mission of various simulation programs ranging from entry level students to practicing professionals, varying foci on individualized learning incompetence, versus and/or team working communications training etc. Part of the challenges in these types of scholarly endeavors people try to describe a “one-size-fits-all“ approach to the solution of best practices. To me, this seems ridiculous when you consider the depths and breadth of possibilities for simulation in healthcare.

I believe another barrier (and FINALLY, the real point of this blog post 🙂  is trying to overly theorize everything that goes on with simulation and shooting down scholarly efforts to publish and disseminate successes in simulation based on some missing link to some often-esoteric deep theory in learning. While I believe that attachments to learning theory are important, I think it is ridiculous to think that every decision, best practice and policy in simulation, or experimental design, needs to reach back and betide to some learning theory to be effective.

As I have the good fortune to review a significant number simulation papers it is concerning to me to see many of my fellow reviewers shredding people’s efforts based on ties to learning theories, as well as their own interpretations on how simulation should be conducted. They have decided by reading the literature that is out there (of which there is very little, if any, conclusive arguments on best practices) has become a standard.

My most recent example is that of a paper I reviewed of a manuscript describing an experimental design looking at conducting simulation one way with a certain technology and comparing it to conducting the simulation another way without the technology. The authors then went on to report the resulting differences. As long as the testing circumstances are clearly articulated, along with the intentions and limitations, this is the type of literature the needs to appear for the simulation community to evaluate and digest, and build upon.

Time after time after time more recently I am seeing arguments steeped in theory attachments that seem to indicate this type of experimental testing is irrelevant, or worse yet inappropriate. There is a time and place for theoretical underpinnings and separately there is a time and place for attempting to move things forward with good solid implementation studies.

The theory wonks are holding up the valuable dissemination of information that could assist simulation efforts moving forward. Such information is crucial to assist us collectively to advance the community of practice of healthcare simulation forward to help improve healthcare globally.  There is a time to theorize and a time to get work done.

While I invite the theorist to postulate new and better ways to do things based on their philosophies, let those in the operational world, tell their stories of successes and opportunities as they are discovered.

Or perhaps it is time that we develop a forum or publication of high quality, that provides a better vehicle for dissemination of such information.

So…… in the mean time….. beware of the theory wonks. Try not to let them deter from your efforts to not only move your own simulation investigations forward, but to be able to disseminate and share them with the rest of the world!

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FIVE TIPS on effectively engaging adult learners in healthcare simulation

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True Systems Integration for Hospital Based Simulation Programs

Businessman is using tablet pc and selecting integrationHospital based simulation programs serve a different need than their counterparts housed in schools of medicine and nursing. The stakeholders, the mission, the program assessment and development of curriculum vary significantly. Not to over-generalize but the overall mission of the school focused simulation programs is based around having them integrated into the education processes that contribute to the development of successful students who will be called graduates. Many times, these students end up taking licensing, certifying or other high-stakes examinations that can serve as a convenient data set to assess the impacts of programs.

The mission of hospital, or health-system based programs can be more complex in terms of alignment within the organization. There is a myriad of possibilities within the healthcare delivery environment that can drive the objectives of simulation programs. Examples range from employee training and education; quality, safety or risk based; or perhaps focusing on facilities engineering perspectives. With all of these possibilities the potential strategies for measurement markers to evaluate the success of the program can become blurry, and at times harder to have ready access to the necessary information.

In an era of healthcare cost reductions that we are experiencing now in the United States and many other areas of the world there is significant pressure coming from many different sides to reduce costs and at the same time improve the quality of care. Thus, to prevail in this era of medicine any entity within healthcare delivery system that costs money to operate (like simulation programs) needs to ensure it is providing value to the hospital or system which supports it.

Determining such value can be very challenging. While there are a couple of examples in the literature of isolated value calculations (such as central line training) the utility of such reports is limited in isolation. In total they are only a minute part of the safety problems associated with the delivery of care in the hospital.

Determining the best value of a hospital based program can be achieved through a series of needs assessments that require the simulation leadership to establish relationships in the hospital leadership teams or C-Suites outside of folks involved in education. The true needs assessment comes from participating in a deep understanding of the existing problems, challenges, solutions and successes that the c-suite is incurring to execute the mission of the hospital. This information is often housed in offices of risk management, quality or patient safety.

Integration with the risk management team can better position the simulation program to understand the legal risks from errors and litigation that is currently facing the hospital. Identifying trends and subject matter that could benefit from simulation training can emerge.

Quality offices generally have significant amounts of information regarding the initiatives that the hospital should be, or is focusing on to better provide care to patients. Such initiatives are often based on measurement programs from payers (insurance companies, whether private of government such as Medicare) that result in significant financial risks and/or benefits for the organization. Thus, identifying simulation solutions that could benefit the initiative in some form or fashion can result in value creation for the program.

Patient Safety Offices (sometimes under, or aligned with quality offices) house much of the data on mistakes, small and large, and in some cases near misses, that are occurring in an institution. Such data will also have information on trends, as well as if there was harm transferred to the patient.

Access to this data over time can help to identify the true needs of organization, and help direct a value-based implementation of the simulation efforts. Importantly though, a careful analysis of this data can also help the simulation program recognize what is not likely to bring as much value to the organization.

Two things are important when considering such integration efforts. The first is, even though there is a new era of transparency emerging regarding patient safety, the information is sensitive. To achieve true integration the simulation program leadership needs to establish relationships across the organization. Ideally you desire not only access to the data, but also a presence that positions themselves closer to the core of the analysis and decision making. Many simulation programs remain peripheral to such processes and thus experience a contractor-vendor type of relationship instead of one more akin to an active partner. It takes time, trust and effort to develop such relationships.

Secondly, a dispassionate evaluation of the data that is achieved from the needs analysis is necessary with regard to properly interpreting the value provided by the simulation program. Many simulation programs are born of a passion to simulate, a passion of the first faculty members, and an attachment to legacy programs that have been running for years. For true alignment within an complex organization and surviving future value analysis initiatives (ie. Remaining supported and funded) a program needs to take a hard look at its existing programs and ensure they are pegged to the overall “true” needs of the institution at large.

While this post is not representative of all the possible strategies to integrate a simulation program, it is meant to give insight into a few examples of possibilities, and articulate the depth of the relationships that should be developed.

 

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Recreating Reality is NOT the goal of Healthcare Simulation

Discussing the real goals of Healthcare Simulation as it relates to the education of individuals and teams. Avoiding the tendency to put the primary focus into recreating reality, and instead providing the adequate experience that allows deep reflection and learning should be the primary focus. This will help you achieve more from your simulation efforts!

 

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Simulation Programs, Hospitals and Health Systems: Where is the organizational fit?

Some excerpts taken from a plenary speech I delivered in Taipei, Taiwan recently to healthcare leaders and education directors. It is important that simulation programs position themselves within complex healthcare systems to be able to deliver maximal benefit to the organization. High performing simulation programs need to deliver more than educational resources to the organization.

 

 

 

 

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Embedding Simulation into Patient Safety

Excerpts from a recent plenary presentation regarding embedding simulation into patient safety as related to the Swiss Cheese model from Dr James Reason.

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Simulation Technicians – Part of the Critical Recipe of Success

SimTech.aJust about every successful simulation in the world has one thing in common. No its not a high fidelity design, great curricular integration or a fabulous debriefing. What is it then?????  Answer: There was a Simulation Technician involved. Sim Techs are crucial to the success of programs and are integral to any team using significant simulation. Sim Techs come in many varieties in terms of backgrounds, titles, and in some smaller programs, many share one of many responsibilities.

I do have a bias that I will disclose. I started my career as an Electronics Technician in the US NAVY. After nearly two years of Navy training I cut my teeth aboard an Aircraft Carrier, the USS John F Kennedy (CV-67). Now that was truly an immersive learning experience! USS.JFKAfter I screwed something up one day when we were off the coast of Libya in 1986, the Electronics Materials Officer called me in the office and said “Son, do I have to remind you where this boat is pointed?” me: “No Sir!”  him: “Now stop being a technician and join this team as a thinker.”

It is important to engage the Sim Tech in every aspect of the simulation. Too often they are thought of as “just a tech”, but this is a HUGE mistake. Engaged professional Sim Techs are capable of many things that can add value to your program beyond setting up, driving mannequins and cleaning up.

Sim Techs are capable of learning how to evaluate and SOldering.asort high quality simulation from that needing improvement, or good debriefing to less than good. Dare I say…. They can also be trained to conduct or participate in debriefings in very creative ways. Sim Techs interacting with your participants can help to alleviate anxiety and get ahead of problems before they occur. They can play a significant role in your quality improvement programs. After all, you have to imagine. They see a lot of simulation!

Sim Techs are highly capable at helping to orient faculty and help to get faculty functioning at a higher level. This may include how to operate A/V equipment, drive simulator, or reset a simulation room to be ready for the next group.

Engaged Sim Techs take pride in their work, become embedded into the effort and share in the pain when something doesn’t go as planned. This level of ownership will often help to transition a program into high reliability operation that has everyone beaming with pride.

The Sim Tech community as a whole harbors a huge supply of energy and creativity and love to participate in being a part of solutions. Whether its moulage, creating a special SimTech2.aenvironment, app, smell, video, visual cue, you can call upon the technical community to solve it.

It is encouraging to see a more professional approach to the workforce development of the simulation community. Achieving certification as a Certified Healthcare Simulation Operations Specialist (CHSOS) through the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH), can be a great source of professional pride for the technician in addition to ensuring competence in several important areas that well trained technicians should have as a minimum.

I would highly recommend encouraging your technicians to take part in training, attending meetings with other techs and engaging in the available networking can pay off in great dividends.  Being current with their knowledge and being able to interact closely with vendors to not only know what is coming out down the pike, but sometimes being able to influence future products are other reasons to make a place in your budget for technician training. In addition to meetings such as the International Meeting for Simulation in Healthcare (IMSH), several high-quality specialty meetings have been created that dedicate a sole focus on technical training from the SSH as well as specialty organizations such as SimGHOSTS. High quality training programs are being offered by simulation centers both in person and on-line such as ours at WISER.

No Simulation Technician is “just a tech” unless the program leadership makes them that. Embrace your technicians. Nurture their professional development and status in and among the team. Push the envelope of their capabilities and creativity to expand into new roles and ownership of your simulation efforts. You will not only be thankful, but wonder why it took so long to realize this is a vital ingredient to the sauce of success of highly capable simulation programs!

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Fire Alarm Systems and Simulation Programs in Hospitals – What is the ROI?

shutterstock_278643779How do you respond to your financial administrator or controller of the purse strings when they ask you what the return on investment is for your hospital-based simulation program? It’s quite complicated.

Return on investment in today’s vernacular implies that there is a financial spreadsheet that can show a positive bottom line after revenue (or direct cost savings) and expenses are accounted for. This is really difficult to do with simulation.

I have seen business plan after business plan of simulation centers that have promised their administration that they will become financially positive and start bringing in big bucks for the institution in some given period of time. Usually it’s part of the business plan that justifies the standing up of the simulation center. I think I can count on one hand the simulation programs that have actually achieved this status. Why is this?

The answer is because calculating discrete return on investment from the simulation alone is extraordinarily difficult to do. While there are some examples in the literature that attempt to quantify in dollar terms a return on investment, they are however few and far between. It is largely confined to some low hanging fruit with the most common example and published in the literature focusing on central line training.

Successfully integrated hospital focused simulation programs likely have found a way to quantify part of their offerings in a dollars and cents accounting scheme, but likely are providing tremendous value to their organizations that are extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible to demonstrate on spreadsheet.

What is the value the simulation center may bring to the ability of a hospital to recruit more patients because the community is aware of patient safety efforts and advanced training to improve care? What is the value of a simulation center in its ability to create exciting training opportunities that allow the staff to feel like the system is investing in them and ultimately helping with recruiting of new staff, along with retention of existing staff members?

What is the value or potential in the ability to avoid causing harm to patients such as mismanaged difficult airway because of simulation training of physicians and other providers who provide such care? What is the value of litigation avoidance for the same topic?

Also, the value proposition of the successfully implemented simulation program for patient safety extinguishes itself over time if it significantly reduces or eliminates the underlying problem. This is the so-called phenomenon of safety being a dynamic, nonevent. Going back to the more concrete example of airway if your airway management mishap rates have been essentially zero over several years, the institutional memory may become fuzzy on why you invest so much money and difficult airway training….. A conundrum to be sure.

I think of fire alarm systems in the hospital as similar situation Let’s compare the two. Fire alarm systems detect or “discover” fires, began to put the fire out, and disseminate the news. Simulation programs have the ability to “detect” or discover potential patient safety problems for the identification of latent threats, poor systems design or staffing for example. Once identified, the simulation program develops training that helps “put out” the patient safety threat. One could argue that the training itself is the dissemination of information that a patient safety “fire” exists.

Fire alarm systems and hospitals cost hundreds of thousands, possibly millions of dollars to install and run on the annual basis. But the chief financial officer never asks what’s the return on investment? Why is that?

Well, perhaps it is a non-issue because fire alarm systems have successfully been written into law, regulations of building codes and so on. Regulation is an interesting idea for simulation to be sure but probably not for a long time.

However, if you think about it beyond a regulatory requirement, the likelihood of a given fire alarm system actually saving a life is probably significantly less probable then a well-integrated simulation program that is providing patient safety programs designed around the needs of the institution it serves. Admittedly the image of hundreds of people being trapped in a burning building is probably more compelling to the finance guy then one patient at a time dying from hypoxia from a mismanaged difficult airway.

Do you really know what to do when the fire alarm system goes off in your hospital? I mean we have little rituals like close the doors etc. But what next? Do we run? If we run, do we run toward the fire? Or away from the fire?  Do we evacuate all the patients? Do we individually call the fire department? Do we find hoses and start squirting out the fire?

When we conduct simulation-based training in hospitals that are aligned with the patient safety needs of the given institution we are extinguishing or minimizing the situation that patients will undergo or suffer from unintended patient harm. The existence of simulation programs and attention to patient safety education are a critical need for the infrastructure of any hospital caring for patients.

The more we can expand upon this concept and allow our expertise in simulation to contribute to the overall mission of the institution in reducing potential harm to patients and hospital staff, the more likely we will receive continuing support and be recognized as important infrastructure to providing the highest quality and safety to our patients.

Just like the fire alarm systems.

 

 

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